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Quinoxaline as Ubiquitous Structural Fragment: An Update on the Recent Development of its Green Synthetic Approaches

Author(s):

Ashish Patel*, Drashti Shah, Naiya Patel, Khushbu Patel, Nidhi Soni, Afzal Nagai, Umang Shah, Mehul Patel, Swayamprakash Patel, Bhargav Bhimani and Tushar Bambharoliya   Pages 1 - 13 ( 13 )

Abstract:


Quinoxaline is a versatile heterocyclic moiety that possesses a wide range of biological activities. Therefore, many researchers have been performing the synthesis of quinoxaline derivatives on a daily basis. In addition, high demands for their synthesis often result in an increased generation of different waste chemicals. However, to minimize the utilization and generation of toxic organic substances, the present review focuses on the various green synthetic approaches for the synthesis of quinoxaline and its derivatives. Moreover, due to the quick manufacturing of novel medications using a quinoxaline scaffold, multiple study reports are published in a short period of time. Therefore, to fully comprehend the current state of the quinoxaline scaffold in medicinal chemistry, it is necessary to combine recent findings with previous understanding. Besides, compared to conventional methods, these green methods minimize the use and generation of harmful chemicals and improve reaction efficiency in terms of product yields, purity, energy consumption, and post-synthetic procedures. Therefore, in this review, we have attempted to shed light on various green synthetic strategies leading to the synthesis of quinoxaline scaffold and its derivatives, such as ultrasound irradiation, microwave irradiation, grindstone technique, environmentally benign solvents/catalysts based, and reactant immobilized on a solid support, etc.

Keywords:

Quinoxaline, green chemistry, o-phenylenediamine, sustainable chemistry, conventional method, microwave irradiation.

Affiliation:

Ramanbhai Patel College of Pharmacy, Charotar University of Science and Technology, CHARUSAT-Campus, Changa-388421, Anand, Gujarat, Ramanbhai Patel College of Pharmacy, Charotar University of Science and Technology, CHARUSAT-Campus, Changa-388421, Anand, Gujarat, Ramanbhai Patel College of Pharmacy, Charotar University of Science and Technology, CHARUSAT-Campus, Changa-388421, Anand, Gujarat, Ramanbhai Patel College of Pharmacy, Charotar University of Science and Technology, CHARUSAT-Campus, Changa-388421, Anand, Gujarat, Ramanbhai Patel College of Pharmacy, Charotar University of Science and Technology, CHARUSAT-Campus, Changa-388421, Anand, Gujarat, Parul Institute of Pharmacy, Parul University, Vadodara, Gujarat, Ramanbhai Patel College of Pharmacy, Charotar University of Science and Technology, CHARUSAT-Campus, Changa-388421, Anand, Gujarat, Ramanbhai Patel College of Pharmacy, Charotar University of Science and Technology, CHARUSAT-Campus, Changa-388421, Anand, Gujarat, Ramanbhai Patel College of Pharmacy, Charotar University of Science and Technology, CHARUSAT-Campus, Changa-388421, Anand, Gujarat, Piramal Discovery Solution, Pharmaceutical Special Economic Zone, Ahmedabad, North Carolina State University, North Carolina



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