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Design of Carbon-carbon and Carbon-heteroatom Bond Formation Reactions under Green Conditions

[ Vol. 23 , Issue. 28 ]

Author(s):

Nagaraju Kerru, Suresh Maddila and Sreekantha B. Jonnalagadda*   Pages 3154 - 3190 ( 37 )

Abstract:


The development of C-C and C-heteroatom (C-N, C-O and C-P) bond reactions is a field of significant interest and has received momentous attention in modern organic chemistry. These reactions have been exploited in the synthesis of pharmaceuticals, agrochemicals and molecules of interest in materials science. With the increasing awareness of global warming and the use of renewable energies, it is of paramount importance to reduce the usage of hazardous chemicals in both industrial and academic research and to achieve a healthier environment through green practices. Green chemistry is a rapidly emerging approach that shows us a path for the sustainable growth of future science and technologies. In the recent past, healthy growth has been recorded in a number of organic reactions in aqueous media, which are environment-friendly and energy conserving. This review documents the literature on the development of green methodologies involving the design of C-C, C-O, C-N and C-P bond formations of coupling and condensed reactions. It emphasizes the exceptional practices and important advances achieved using alternative green tools, such as microwave (MW), high-speed ball milling (HSBM) and ultrasound irradiation techniques, and a variety of reusable catalysts and green solvents, with attention to water.

Keywords:

Carbon-carbon bond, carbon-heteroatom bond, green conditions, aqueous medium, coupling reactions, condensation reactions.

Affiliation:

School of Chemistry & Physics, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Westville Campus, Chiltern Hills, Durban-4000, School of Chemistry & Physics, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Westville Campus, Chiltern Hills, Durban-4000, School of Chemistry & Physics, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Westville Campus, Chiltern Hills, Durban-4000

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