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Zanthoxylum: A Review of its Traditional Uses, Naturally Occurring Constituents and Pharmacological Properties

[ Vol. 23 , Issue. 12 ]

Author(s):

Zulfa Nooreen, Sudeep Tandon, Narayan P. Yadav, Prabhat Kumar, Tran D. Xuan and Ateeque Ahmad*   Pages 1307 - 1341 ( 35 )

Abstract:


Zanthoxylum, commonly known as Timoor, has been used in different traditional systems of medicine and also for several other applications such as chemopreventive agents, tooth care, as spices, condiments, etc. Due to the pungent taste of fruits, seeds, leaves, bark, and therapeutic remedies, especially in Indian system of medicine, Eastern Asian countries and in Central America, it is being substituted for pepper. The collection of Zanthoxylum armatum DC; Syn. Z. alatum Roxb and its several species used for food, medicine and barter has been a part of the culture of many communities in different countries. The fruits and seeds of timoor are well known in ayurvedic medicine and used for different diseases. The bark of the plant has also been reported for hepatoprotective activity. Several natural compounds have been isolated and identified in several classes, from different plant parts and species. The Zanthoxylum compounds and extracts of the plant parts have been reported for several types of biological activities. This review aims to examine the detailed aspects of phytochemical compounds and pharmacological activities covering maximum species of this genus. In view of the available pharmacological data and traditional use in Indian system of medicine and in other countries also, Z. armatum and other species certainly deserve more investigations. However, clinical evidence and rigorous investigations for quality control are required before any recommendation for Zanthoxylum based products.

Keywords:

Zanthoxylum spp., Timoor, Nepali Dhania, chemopreventive, spice, Rutaceae, Biological activities.

Affiliation:

Phytochemical Technology Department, CSIR-Central Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants (CIMAP), Lucknow-226015, Phytochemical Technology Department, CSIR-Central Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants (CIMAP), Lucknow-226015, Botany and Pharmacognosy Department, CSIR-Central Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants (CIMAP), Lucknow-226015, Phytochemical Technology Department, CSIR-Central Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants (CIMAP), Lucknow-226015, Graduate School for International Development and Cooperation (IDEC), Hiroshima University, Hiroshima 739-8529, Phytochemical Technology Department, CSIR-Central Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants (CIMAP), Lucknow-226015

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