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The Regioselective Functionalization of Pyridine at 2,3,4-positions via Carbene Intermediate

[ Vol. 22 , Issue. 15 ]

Author(s):

Aamer Saeed*, Muhammad Zain-ul-Abideen and Muhammad N. Mustafa   Pages 1536 - 1553 ( 18 )

Abstract:


The synthetic and mechanistic aspects of highly energetic pyridine carbenes (PyCs) are discussed for understanding the regio- and stereoselective functionalization of pyridine at rare sites by applying different C-H bond activation methods. Various transition metals and metalloids are used for the generation of corresponding PyCs followed by the formation of substituted pyridines. The functionalization of most focused 2,3,4- positions of pyridine is described with several applications in the synthesis of drugs and natural products, in single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) and in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) as the energy storage compounds.

Keywords:

Pyridene carbene, Pyrid-x-ylidene, transition metal catalysis, Chichibabin reaction, triaryl-2-pyridylidine, dye-sensitized solar cells.

Affiliation:

Department of Chemistry, Quaid-I-Azam University, Islamabad 45320, Department of Chemistry, Quaid-I-Azam University, Islamabad 45320, Department of Chemistry, Quaid-I-Azam University, Islamabad 45320

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