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Transformation Products of Pharmaceuticals in the Environment: Formation and Analysis

[ Vol. 22 , Issue. 10 ]

Author(s):

Sandra Babic*, Martina Biosic and Irena Skoric   Pages 987 - 1004 ( 18 )

Abstract:


Identification of transformation products and elucidation of degradation pathways of pharmaceuticals in the environment is a challenging task due to the numerous compounds, their low concentrations, and complexity of the environmental matrices. This manuscript summarizes present knowledge about main degradation routes of pharmaceuticals in the environment and review published methods and approaches for their determination in environmental samples, with a special emphasis on the mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance techniques.

Keywords:

Pharmaceuticals, environment, fate, degradation path, liquid chromatography, mass spectrometry, nuclear magnetic resonance.

Affiliation:

Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemical Engineering and Technology, University of Zagreb, Marulicev trg 19, Zagreb, Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemical Engineering and Technology, University of Zagreb, Marulicev trg 19, Zagreb, Department of Organic Chemistry, Faculty of Chemical Engineering and Technology, University of Zagreb, Marulicev trg 19, Zagreb

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